地图题写作在很多书上都没有系统的指导,它有别于数据图,构思方面没有数据图那么复杂,但在语言驾驭,很多学生都感到很陌生。怎么写地图题,雅思中国网海外考试研究中心将在下文中一一来解构。

地图题分两种,一种为地理变迁题,一种为选址题。首先我们来看地理变迁题,它描述的是一个地方(多为一个城镇)在一段时间的发展变化。如20069A TASK 1, 剑1TEST 4。就这些图形,我们来总结地理变迁题的写作要点。

 

î      时态

如果地图题反映的是一个地方在过去的一段时间的变化,文章用一般过去时。如果地图题反映的是一个地方在将来一段时间的变化趋势,文章用一般将来时或表估计的词汇。如果地图题反映的是一个地方从过去到现在的变化,可用现完成时。

如:现在停车场改成了一个剧院。

The car park has been removed and replaced by a theatre.

城镇A的家庭数量从1937年到2020年将翻一番。

The number of homes in Town A is likely to double

(is likely to= is predicted to /is estimated to/is projected to/is expected to )

又可为:

It is likely that the number of homes in Town A will double.

(it is likely that = it is predicted/estimated/projected/ expected that…..)

î      细节变化

地图每个细节变化都要提到,不要忽视一个细节

î      语态

地图题用被动语态

如: 2000年在城镇A 新建了一个医院:A new hospital was established in Town A in 2000.

î      地图题的书写顺序:时间顺序和空间顺序

20069A TASK 1

The map shows the development of the village of Kelsbey between 1780 and 2000.

这篇文章大体框架按时间顺序,BODY 分三段分别描述:1780年村庄,1860村庄, 2000年村庄。对每一年的描述,如1780年村庄,我们要注意按方位顺序来描述,否则文章会出现混乱。这就需要考生在考前对方位词进行总结。地图题的方位我们说东西南北,不说成左右。

î        A B 的东方/西方/南方/北方

A is/ lies/ is located/ is situated in/on / to the east/west/south/north of B

(in A B 内部, ON A B接壤,TO A B 分开)

î        A B 内部的某个部位

A is in the eastern/ southern/ western/ northern part of B.

î        AB 西北部的120 千米处

A lies 120 km to the northwest of B.

î        A B…..角落

A is at/in  the south-eastern corner of B ( at 表示A B 外部, inA B 内部)

î        在河流或道路的南边/北边等

On the south/southern side of the river

On both sides of the road

On the other side

î        临近马路的地区

The area adjacent to/ near /next to/ just off the road

î        在道路或河流的最南端

At the southern end of the river

î        A B 的对面

A is on the opposite side of B

A is opposite B

î        A B 东部的边界上(A B外部)

A is on the eastern border of B

î        A B 东部边缘上 (A B 内部)

A is on/ along the eastern edge of B

î      “变化词汇

地图题描述的是一个地区的变化,那么变化词汇必须过关。

雅思中国网海外考试研究中心分析发现,变化包括两种:图形原有事物的改变,图形新添事物。

我们先看图形原有事物的改变:

î        原有事物可说成:

The original/previous/former garden

î        原有事物尺寸上变大/变小:

The size of the library has been enlarged/extended/halved/reduced by half

î        原有事物在数量上增多或减少:

The number of homes has increased/risen/grown/reduced /decreased/dropped/fallen/

doubled/ tripled/ quadrupled to 500.

î        原有事物没了:

The farms completely disappeared/were removed.

î        原有事物被改为:

A becomes B

A is transformed/reconstructed/redeveloped/converted/changed/turned over to/ into B

A is replaced /substituted by B = A gives way to B

î        图形新添事物

A newly-built road

A new car park was built/established/set up/constructed/completed and opened in the middle of B

A new IT centre has been added to the library

The year 2000 saw two additions to the land: a pond in the northern part and a vegetable garden on the opposite side.

地图题第二类为选址题 如剑5 TEST 3 TASK 1

The map shows two possible sites for the supermarket. 为一个城镇的超市选址, 有两个位置 S1 S2 供选择。选址题并不难写,主要注意两点:

î      位置描述

î      优缺点

这篇文章我们BODY段可分两段,分别陈述:

S1的位置及位置相应的优缺点

S2的位置及位置相应的优缺点

其中表位置的方位词已在前文有总结,

同理, 2006 2 A Task 1: The diagram below shows the problem of flooding in a UK town and two possible solutions

我们BODY 段可分两段,分别陈述:

Solution 1  的解决方案和相应的优缺点

Solution 2  的解决方案和相应的优缺点

其中,解决方案实际还是要涉及一些方位词。

总之,对于地理变迁题,雅思中国网海外考试研究中心建议考生考前要充分的掌握上述五点,勤加练习,选址题则把握位置和优缺点两个要害,地图题的写作就会明朗化。

 


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